Relevance and therapeutic implication of macroprolactinemia detection using PEG 6000 in women of childbearing age with hyperprolactinemia: experience at a tertiary hospital

Authors

  • AO Boli Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • MCE Etoga Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • FM Mendane University of Yaoundé I
  • C Feutseu University of Yaoundé I
  • A Falmata University of Bamenda
  • AM Ndi Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • JC Katte Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • M Dehayem Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • VJA Moor University of Yaoundé I
  • JC Mbanya Yaoundé Central Hospital
  • E Sobngwi Yaoundé Central Hospital

Keywords:

hyperprolactinemia, macroprolactin, PEG, prolactin, prolactin recovery rate

Abstract

Introduction: Macroprolactin may interfere with hormonal assay and falsely increase serum prolactin levels. Therefore, failure to identify macroprolactinemia can lead to inappropriate investigations and treatment in women already susceptible to anxiety and stress. The aim of this study was to identify macroprolactinemia among women of childbearing age with hyperprolactinemia.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care setting at the endocrine unit. Study participants were recruited from both endocrine and gynaecological outpatient consultation services. They were women of childbearing age (18 to 49 years) consulting for signs and symptoms of gonadal dysfunction or hyperprolactinemia (PRL > 25 ng/ml). Total prolactin was measured using a Human direct ELISA method. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) precipitation was used to detect macroprolactin.

Results: A total of 33 women with a mean age of 31 ± 7 years (range 21–48) were enrolled. Twenty-seven (81.8%) participants were symptomatic, the majority (23/27) (69.7%) reported having galactorrhoea, and 21 (63.4%) women reported having an irregular menstrual cycle. The median pre-precipitation prolactinemia reduced significantly after PEG precipitation from 61.2 (IQR 33.2–115.9) ng/ml to 33.8 (IQR 17.9–70.5) ng/ml, p < 0.001. After PEG precipitation, five participants had a serum prolactin recovery rate below 60% and, therefore, a prevalence of macroprolactinemia at 15.2%. Four out of five (80%) women with macroprolactinemia presented with the symptoms amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and galactorrhoea.

Conclusion: PEG 6000 permitted the detection of macroprolactinemia in women of childbearing age with hyperprolactinemia who otherwise would have been subjected to unnecessary medical investigations and treatment.

Author Biographies

AO Boli, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

MCE Etoga, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

FM Mendane, University of Yaoundé I

Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

C Feutseu, University of Yaoundé I

Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and Metabolism, Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

A Falmata, University of Bamenda

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

AM Ndi, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

JC Katte, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

M Dehayem, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

VJA Moor, University of Yaoundé I

Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I and Yaoundé University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon

JC Mbanya, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I and Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and Metabolism, Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

E Sobngwi, Yaoundé Central Hospital

National Obesity Center, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital and Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I and Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and Metabolism, Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Downloads

Published

2023-12-12

Issue

Section

Original Research