Effect of an educational intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour in type 2 diabetic patients at a foot and eye care practice
Keywords:eye care, foot care, knowledge, Theory of Planned Behavior, type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Eye and foot problems are two of the most common consequences of diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of an educational programme based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on foot and eye care among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran.
Methods: A total of 100 individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type II) who met the study’s inclusion criteria were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (intervention = 50, control = 50). The questionnaires were completed by all groups and included demographic information, TPB constructs, foot and eye care, and patients’ HbA1c levels. Questionnaires were completed prior to, immediately following, and three months after the intervention by members of the experimental and control groups. During the intervention period, the experimental group attended 10 instructive sessions. SPSS 22 software was used to analyse the data. Paired t-tests, independent t-tests, chisquare, and RMA (Repeated Measurement ANOVA) were all used (p < 0.05).
Results: Knowledge and all TPB components were significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group after intervention. In addition, foot and eye care practice and HbA1c level improved significantly among the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Applying the TPB is quite helpful in designing an educational programme for diabetic people to control their blood sugar and improve behavioural foot and eye care. Aside from such programmes, follow-up education on regulating and monitoring is strongly advised.